\documentclass[amssymb,twocolumn,pra,10pt,aps]{revtex4-1}
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\begin{document}
\title{The 72nd William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition \\
Saturday, December 3, 2011}
\maketitle
\newcommand{\RR}{\mathbb{R}}
\begin{itemize}
\item[A1] Define a \textit{growing spiral} in the plane to be a sequence
of points with integer coordinates $P_0 = (0,0), P_1, \dots, P_n$ such
that $n \geq 2$ and:
\begin{itemize}
\item the directed line segments $P_0 P_1, P_1 P_2, \dots, P_{n-1} P_n$
are in the successive coordinate directions east (for $P_0 P_1$), north,
west, south, east, etc.;
\item the lengths of these line segments are positive and strictly
increasing.
\end{itemize} [Picture omitted.] How many of the points $(x,y)$ with
integer coordinates $0\leq x\leq 2011, 0\leq y\leq 2011$ \emph{cannot}
be the last point, $P_n$ of any growing spiral?
\item[A2] Let $a_1,a_2,\dots$ and $b_1,b_2,\dots$ be sequences of positive
real numbers such that $a_1 = b_1 = 1$ and $b_n = b_{n-1} a_n - 2$ for
$n=2,3,\dots$. Assume that the sequence $(b_j)$ is bounded. Prove that
\[
S = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{a_1...a_n}
\]
converges, and evaluate $S$.
\item[A3] Find a real number $c$ and a positive number $L$ for which
\[
\lim_{r\to\infty} \frac{r^c \int_0^{\pi/2} x^r \sin x \,dx}{\int_0^{\pi/2} x^r \cos x \,dx} = L.
\]
\item[A4] For which positive integers $n$ is there an $n \times n$ matrix
with integer entries such that every dot product of a row with itself is
even, while every dot product of two different rows is odd?
\item[A5] Let $F : \RR^2 \to \RR$ and $g : \RR \to \RR$ be twice
continuously differentiable functions with the following properties:
\begin{itemize}
\item $F(u,u) = 0$ for every $u \in \RR$;
\item for every $x \in \RR$, $g(x) > 0$ and $x^2 g(x) \leq 1$;
\item for every $(u,v) \in \RR^2$, the vector $\nabla F(u,v)$ is either $\mathbf{0}$ or parallel to the vector $\langle g(u), -g(v) \rangle$.
\end{itemize}
Prove that there exists a constant $C$ such that for every $n\geq 2$ and any $x_1,\dots,x_{n+1} \in \RR$, we have
\[
\min_{i \neq j} |F(x_i,x_j)| \leq \frac{C}{n}.
\]
\item[A6] Let $G$ be an abelian group with $n$ elements, and let
\[ \{g_1=e,g_2,\dots,g_k\} \subsetneqq G \]
be a (not necessarily minimal) set of distinct generators of $G$. A special
die, which randomly selects one of the elements $g_1,g_2,...,g_k$ with equal
probability, is rolled $m$ times and the selected elements are multiplied
to produce an element $g \in G$. Prove that there exists a real number
$b \in (0,1)$ such that
\[ \lim_{m\to\infty} \frac{1}{b^{2m}} \sum_{x\in G} \left(\mathrm{Prob}(g=x)
- \frac{1}{n}\right)^2 \]
is positive and finite.
\item[B1] Let $h$ and $k$ be positive integers. Prove that for every
$\epsilon > 0$, there are positive integers $m$ and $n$ such that
\[ \epsilon < |h \sqrt{m} - k \sqrt{n}| < 2\epsilon. \]
\item[B2] Let $S$ be the set of all ordered triples $(p,q,r)$ of prime
numbers for which at least one rational number $x$ satisfies $px^2 + qx +
r =0$. Which primes appear in seven or more elements of $S$?
\item[B3] Let $f$ and $g$ be (real-valued) functions defined on an open
interval containing $0$, with $g$ nonzero and continuous at $0$. If $fg$
and $f/g$ are differentiable at $0$, must $f$ be differentiable at 0?
\item[B4] In a tournament, 2011 players meet 2011 times to play a
multiplayer game. Every game is played by all 2011 players together and
ends with each of the players either winning or losing. The standings
are kept in two $2011 \times 2011$ matrices, $T = (T_{hk})$ and $W =
(W_{hk})$. Initially, $T=W=0$. After every game, for every $(h,k)$ (including
for $h=k$), if players $h$ and $k$ tied (that is, both won or both lost),
the entry $T_{hk}$ is increased by 1, while if player $h$ won and player $k$
lost, the entry $W_{hk}$ is increased by 1 and $W_{kh}$ is decreased by 1.
Prove that at the end of the tournament, $\det(T+iW)$ is a non-negative
integer divisible by $2^{2010}$.
\item[B5] Let $a_1, a_2, \dots$ be real numbers. Suppose that there is
a constant $A$ such that for all $n$,
\[
\int_{-\infty}^\infty \left( \sum_{i=1}^n \frac{1}{1 + (x-a_i)^2} \right)^2\,dx \leq An.
\]
Prove there is a constant $B>0$ such that for all $n$,
\[
\sum_{i,j=1}^n (1 + (a_i - a_j)^2) \geq Bn^3.
\]
\item[B6]
Let $p$ be an odd prime. Show that for at least $(p+1)/2$ values of $n$ in $\{0,1,2,\dots,p-1\}$,
\[
\sum_{k=0}^{p-1} k! n^k \qquad \mbox{is not divisible by $p$.}
\]
\end{itemize}
\end{document}