\documentclass[amssymb,twocolumn,pra,10pt,aps]{revtex4-1}
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\begin{document}
\title{The 74th William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition \\
Saturday, December 7, 2013}
\maketitle
\newcommand{\FF}{\mathbb{F}}
\newcommand{\RR}{\mathbb{R}}
\begin{itemize}
\item[A1]
Recall that a regular icosahedron is a convex polyhedron
having 12 vertices and 20 faces;
the faces are congruent equilateral triangles.
On each face of a regular icosahedron is written a nonnegative integer
such that the sum of all 20 integers is 39. Show that there are
two faces that share a vertex and have the same integer written on them.
\item[A2]
Let $S$ be the set of all positive integers that are \emph{not} perfect squares. For $n$ in $S$, consider choices of integers
$a_1, a_2, \dots, a_r$ such that $n < a_1< a_2 < \cdots < a_r$
and $n \cdot a_1 \cdot a_2 \cdots a_r$ is a perfect square, and
let $f(n)$ be the minumum of $a_r$ over all such choices. For example,
$2 \cdot 3 \cdot 6$ is a perfect square, while $2 \cdot 3$, $2 \cdot 4$,
$2 \cdot 5$, $2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4$, $2 \cdot 3 \cdot 5$, $2 \cdot 4 \cdot 5$, and $2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5$ are not, and so $f(2) = 6$.
Show that the function $f$ from $S$ to the integers is one-to-one.
\item[A3]
Suppose that the real numbers $a_0, a_1, \dots, a_n$ and
$x$, with $0 < x < 1$, satisfy
\[
\frac{a_0}{1-x} + \frac{a_1}{1-x^2} + \cdots + \frac{a_n}{1 - x^{n+1}} = 0.
\]
Prove that there exists a real number $y$ with $0 < y < 1$ such that
\[
a_0 + a_1 y + \cdots + a_n y^n = 0.
\]
\item[A4]
A finite collection of digits $0$ and $1$ is written around a circle.
An \emph{arc} of length $L \geq 0$ consists of $L$ consecutive digits around the circle. For each arc $w$, let $Z(w)$ and $N(w)$ denote the number of $0$'s in $w$ and the number of $1$'s in $w$, respectively.
Assume that $\left| Z(w) - Z(w') \right| \leq 1$ for any two arcs $w, w'$ of the same length. Suppose that some arcs $w_1,\dots,w_k$ have the property that
\[
Z = \frac{1}{k} \sum_{j=1}^k Z(w_j) \mbox{ and }
N = \frac{1}{k} \sum_{j=1}^k N(w_j)
\]
are both integers. Prove that there exists an arc $w$ with $Z(w) = Z$
and $N(w) = N$.
\item[A5]
For $m \geq 3$, a list of $\binom{m}{3}$ real numbers $a_{ijk}$ ($1 \leq i < < j < k \leq m$) is said to be \emph{area definite} for $\mathbb{R}^n$ if the inequality
\[
\sum_{1 \leq i < j < k \leq m} a_{ijk} \cdot \mathrm{Area}(\Delta A_i A_j A_k) \geq 0
\]
holds for every choice of $m$ points $A_1,\dots,A_m$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$.
For example, the list of four numbers $a_{123} = a_{124} = a_{134} = 1$, $a_{234} = -1$ is area definite for $\mathbb{R}^2$. Prove that if a list of $\binom{m}{3}$ numbers is area definite for $\mathbb{R}^2$,
then it is area definite for $\mathbb{R}^3$.
\item[A6]
Define a function $w: \mathbb{Z} \times \mathbb{Z} \to \mathbb{Z}$
as follows. For $\left| a \right|, \left| b \right| \leq 2$,
let $w(a,b)$ be as in the table shown; otherwise, let $w(a,b) = 0$.
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|cc|r|r|r|r|r|}
\hline
\multicolumn{2}{|c|}{\multirow{2}{*}{$w(a,b)$}} & \multicolumn{5}{|c|}{$b$} \\
& & -2 & -1 & 0 & 1 & 2 \\
\hline
& -2 & -1 & -2 & 2 & -2 & -1 \\
& -1 & -2 & 4 & -4 & 4 & -2 \\
$a$ & 0 & 2 & -4 & 12 & -4 & 2 \\
& 1 & -2 & 4 & -4 & 4 & -2 \\
& 2 & -1 & -2 & 2 & -2 & -1 \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
For every finite subset $S$ of $\mathbb{Z} \times \mathbb{Z}$,
define
\[
A(S) = \sum_{(\mathbf{s}, \mathbf{s}') \in S \times S} w(\mathbf{s} - \mathbf{s}').
\]
Prove that if $S$ is any finite nonempty subset of $\mathbb{Z} \times \mathbb{Z}$, then $A(S) > 0$.
(For example, if $S = \{(0,1), (0,2), (2,0), (3,1)\}$, then the terms in $A(S)$ are $12, 12, 12, 12, 4, 4, 0, 0, 0,0,-1,-1,-2,-2,-4,-4$.)
\item[B1]
For positive integers $n$, let the numbers $c(n)$ be determined by
the rules $c(1) = 1$, $c(2n) = c(n)$, and $c(2n+1) = (-1)^n c(n)$.
Find the value of
\[
\sum_{n=1}^{2013} c(n) c(n+2).
\]
\item[B2]
Let $C = \bigcup_{N=1}^\infty C_N$, where $C_N$ denotes the set of those `cosine polynomials' of the form
\[
f(x) = 1 + \sum_{n=1}^N a_n \cos(2 \pi n x)
\]
for which:
\begin{enumerate}
\item[(i)]
$f(x) \geq 0$ for all real $x$, and
\item[(ii)]
$a_n = 0$ whenever $n$ is a multiple of $3$.
\end{enumerate}
Determine the maximum value of $f(0)$ as $f$ ranges through $C$, and
prove that this maximum is attained.
\item[B3]
Let $P$ be a nonempty collection of subsets of $\{1,\dots, n\}$ such that:
\begin{enumerate}
\item[(i)]
if $S, S' \in P$, then $S \cup S' \in P$ and $S \cap S' \in P$, and
\item[(ii)]
if $S \in P$ and $S \neq \emptyset$, then there is a subset $T \subset S$
such that $T \in P$ and $T$ contains exactly one fewer element than $S$.
\end{enumerate}
Suppose that $f: P \to \mathbb{R}$ is a function such that
$f(\emptyset) = 0$ and
\[
f(S \cup S') = f(S) + f(S') - f(S \cap S') \mbox{ for all $S,S' \in P$.}
\]
Must there exist real numbers $f_1,\dots,f_n$ such that
\[
f(S) = \sum_{i \in S} f_i
\]
for every $S \in P$?
\item[B4]
For any continuous real-valued function $f$ defined on the interval $[0,1]$, let
\begin{gather*}
\mu(f) = \int_0^1 f(x)\,dx, \,
\mathrm{Var}(f) = \int_0^1 (f(x) - \mu(f))^2\,dx, \\
M(f) = \max_{0 \leq x \leq 1} \left| f(x) \right|.
\end{gather*}
Show that if $f$ and $g$ are continuous real-valued functions
defined on the interval $[0,1]$,
then
\[
\mathrm{Var}(fg) \leq 2 \mathrm{Var}(f) M(g)^2 + 2 \mathrm{Var}(g) M(f)^2.
\]
\item[B5]
Let $X = \{1, 2, \dots, n\}$, and let $k \in X$. Show that there are exactly $k \cdot n^{n-1}$ functions $f: X \to X$ such that for every $x \in X$ there is a $j \geq 0$ such that $f^{(j)}(x) \leq k$.
[Here $f^{(j)}$ denotes the $j$\textsuperscript{th} iterate of $f$, so that $f^{(0)}(x) = x$ and $f^{(j+1)}(x) = f(f^{(j)}(x))$.]
\item[B6]
Let $n \geq 1$ be an odd integer. Alice and Bob play the following game,
taking alternating turns, with Alice playing first.
The playing area consists of $n$ spaces, arranged in a line.
Initially all spaces are empty.
At each turn, a player either
\begin{itemize}
\item
places a stone in an empty space, or
\item
removes a stone from a nonempty space $s$,
places a stone in the nearest empty space to the left of $s$
(if such a space exists),
and places a stone in the nearest empty space to the right of $s$
(if such a space exists).
\end{itemize}
Furthermore, a move is permitted only if the resulting position has not occurred previously in the game. A player loses if he or she is unable to move. Assuming that both players play optimally throughout the game, what moves may Alice make on her first turn?
\end{itemize}
\end{document}